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Integrating video content into the EFL classroom – Part 3

MercedesBenzmuseumFancy livening up your classroom with some ready-made video activities? This is the third in a series of four articles in which Keith Harding and Rachel Appleby share ideas for using the stunning new International Express video material. Each unit of the course features a video directly related to the unit topic. Here, Keith offers some ideas for using the clip from Intermediate Unit 4 – Mercedes-Benz Museum, which focuses on making comparisons.

Watch the video

Before you watch

As with any listening or reading text it is important to prepare and predict, in order to maximise the learning potential from the video. Here are some ideas to get your students started before they watch the video.

1. Museums

Students in pairs/groups describe museums in their city/country, and talk about their favourite museum. Questions to ask include:

a. What do they like about their favourite museum?

b. Why is it better than other museums? (This will help to elicit practice of comparatives)

c. Do they know any unusual museums, e.g. for particular products and brands?

Plan a ‘Museum of Brands’

Elicit some top-of-the-range brands from the students, for example, Rolex, Apple, Nike, Mercedes Benz (prompt to elicit this one if necessary)

In groups, students decide what they would exhibit in a ‘Museum of Brands’ and what they would call each of the galleries.

2. Pre-teach vocabulary

This exercise is taken from the video worksheet that comes with the International Express Teacher’s Resource Book DVD. All the worksheets are also available for free here. You just need your Oxford Teacher’s Club log-in details to view them.

Vocabulary:

What do the words in bold mean?

  1. The story is based on a local legend.
  2. The prototype of the vehicle used a piston engine.
  3. He is a real football enthusiast. He goes to every game.
  4. My father collects a lot of Beatles memorabilia, like albums, posters, and concert tickets.
  5. Phone companies need to have cutting-edge technology to be successful.
  6. The documentary on deep-sea diving gave us a glimpse into life in the ocean.
  7. The book gives us an insight into life in South America.

While you watch

To maximise the learning opportunities, you need to set tasks for the students to focus on. Remember tasks can be graded to the level of the learners, even if the content is not. This will involve the teacher in using pause, rewind, and sound-off facilities.

3. Silent play on fast-forward

Play the whole video on fast-forward with the sound down. Students write down what they see, then compare in groups and then watch again on normal speed.

4. Recognising difficult or technical vocabulary

As you would expect, the video contains several terms relating to vehicle transport. Understanding lexical sets of technically-related vocabulary and the differences in meaning between the different items is an important skill for the professional adult learner. Play the video in sections and ask students to write down the names of any vehicle types they hear. They should identify the following:

motor car

horse-drawn carriage

automobile

limousine

convertible

roadster

sports car

rally car (‘rallying’ on the video)

Formula 1

racing car

lorry (lorries)

police car

ambulance

fire engine

Check students’ answers, and ask them to give a definition of each type.

5. Numbers and names ‘bingo’

Design a bingo card for each student with numbers and names, including ones from the video, but other distracters as well. Students tick off the numbers/names when they hear them. When they have completed a line of three (horizontal, vertical or diagonal) they shout bingo, stop the video and check.

Here are two examples:

Example 1:

nine 60,500 Rolls Royce
Karl Benz Daimler AG one million euros
Formula 1 Ferrari300 SL

Example 2:

a million 16,500 Porshe
1954 seven Mercedes Simplex
13 300 SL convertible

After you watch

Follow-up tasks and activities will help to reinforce the language and will also provide the opportunity for more communicative and interactive language practice.

6. Practice vocabulary work on different forms of transport, and different brands and products

7. Conduct a survey of class members or any other accessible group (e.g. work colleagues, teachers and staff in school). Example questions could be:

a) Which museums have you visited?

b) Which is your favourite – or least favourite – and why?

c) What factors are important for you in a museum? Examples could include admission cost, interesting displays, interactive exhibits, a good cafe.

d) Use the results to plan a group outing.

8. Plan and present an idea for your own museum

a) Use the results from the survey (task 8) if available.

b) Decide the theme for your museum. For example, it could be a museum of your own life, with photographs, objects from your past and from your present working life.

c) Design the plan of the museum.

d) Present to the rest of the group.

I hope you enjoy trying out some of these activities in class!


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Inductive and deductive grammar teaching: what is it, and does it work?

grammar-389907_640

Used from Pixabay, with permission under Creative Commons licence

Jon Hird, materials writer and teacher trainer, discusses inductive and deductive grammar teaching, comparing and contrasting the two, and debating the pros and cons of their use in the classroom ahead of his webinar on the topic on April 28th and 30th.

There are two main ways that we tend to teach grammar: deductively and inductively. Both deductive and inductive teaching have their pros and cons and which approach we use when can depend on a number of factors, such as the nature of the language being taught and the preferences of the teacher and learners. It is, however, perhaps generally accepted that a combination of both approaches is best suited for the EFL classroom.

Some agreement exists that the most effective grammar teaching includes some deductive and inductive characteristics.
– Haight, Heron, & Cole 2007.

So what is deductive and inductive grammar teaching? In this blog, we will first take a look at the underlying principles of inductive and deductive reasoning and then look at how this applies to grammar teaching and learning. We will then briefly consider some of the pros and cons.

Deductive and inductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is essentially a top-down approach which moves from the more general to the more specific. In other words, we start with a general notion or theory, which we then narrow down to specific hypotheses, which are then tested. Inductive reasoning is more of a bottom-up approach, moving from the more specific to the more general, in which we make specific observations, detect patterns, formulate hypotheses and draw conclusions.

deductiveinductive

Deductive and inductive grammar learning

These two approaches have been applied to grammar teaching and learning. A deductive approach involves the learners being given a general rule, which is then applied to specific language examples and honed through practice exercises. An inductive approach involves the learners detecting, or noticing, patterns and working out a ‘rule’ for themselves before they practise the language.

 A deductive approach (rule-driven) starts with the presentation of a rule and is followed by examples in which the rule is applied.

An inductive approach (rule-discovery) starts with some examples from which a rule is inferred.

– Thornbury, 1999

Both approaches are commonplace in published materials. Some course books may adhere to one approach or the other as series style, whereas some may be more flexible and employ both approaches according to what the language being taught lends itself to. Most inductive learning presented in course books is guided or scaffolded. In other words, exercises and questions guide the learner to work out the grammar rule. The following course book extracts illustrate the two different approaches. The subsequent practice exercises are similar in both course books.

jonhird1 jonhird2
Q: Skills for Success Listening and Speaking Level 3                        New Headway 4th Edition (Elementary)

Which approach – pros and cons?

First and foremost, it is perhaps the nature of the language being taught that determines if an inductive approach is possible. Inductive learning is an option for language with salient features and consistency and simplicity of use and form. The basic forms of comparative adjectives, as shown above, is an example of this. Conversely, teaching the finer points of the use of articles (a/an, the) inductively, for example, would most probably be problematic. The metalinguistic tools that the learners will need to accomplish the task is also a factor.

However, the learner-centred nature of inductive teaching is often seen as advantageous as the learner is more active in the learning process rather than being a passive recipient. This increased engagement may help the learner to develop deeper understanding and help fix the language being learned. This could also promote the strategy of ‘noticing’ in the student and enhance learner autonomy and motivation.

On the other hand, inductive learning can be more time- and energy-consuming and more demanding of the teacher and the learner. It is also possible that during the process, the learner may arrive at an incorrect inference or produce an incorrect or incomplete rule. Also, an inductive approach may frustrate learners whose personal learning style and/or past learning experience is more in line with being taught via a more teacher-centred and deductive approach.

While it might be appropriate at times to articulate a rule and then proceed to instances, most of the evidence in communicative second language teaching points to the superiority of an inductive approach to rules and generalizations.
– Brown, 2007

Nevertheless, while there are pros and cons to both approaches and while a combination of both inductive and deductive grammar teaching and learning is probably inevitable, an inductive approach does seem to be broadly accepted as being more efficient in the long run, at least for some learners. Would you agree with this?

If you’d like to join Jon Hird for the free webinar discussing this topic at length on April 28th or 30th, register below or follow the link for further details.

Register for the webinar

 

 

References

Brown, H.D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching. Pearson Longman.

Haight, C., Herron, C., & Cole, S. (2007). The effects of deductive and guided inductive instructional approaches on the learning of grammar in the elementary language college classroom. Foreign Language Annals, 40, 288-309.

Thornbury, S. (1999). How to Teach Grammar. Pearson.


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Using video content effectively in your EFL classroom

DeathtoStock_Creative Community3Ten years ago today, the first YouTube upload was made live on the platform. Entitled ‘Me at the zoo’, it was uploaded by one of the platform’s co-founders, Jared Karim, and can still be seen on the site today. With over 19 million views on this video alone, and users in excess of 1 billion, YouTube and the influence of video content on our lives is undeniable. But how do we translate this medium into a practical learning tool for the classroom, without losing out on efficiency? Is the integration of digital content into language learning falling victim to fads, or a step towards the future?

In recognition of an upload which changed the landscape of social and digital content sharing, here are some of our favourite articles dealing with the use of video in the EFL classroom.

Using video for Business English

The Power of Business Video Part 1 – Using ‘graded video’ in Business English teaching
John Hughes examines the case for using graded video in the first of two posts on using video in the Business English classroom.

The Power of Business Video Part 2 – Key uses of video for Business English teaching
Taking the Business English classroom as context, John Hughes explores the most effective uses of video for learning.

Practical ideas for the Business English classroom Part 2 – Making the most out of video
In this blog post John Hughes looks at practical ideas as to how the use of video can support business English teaching.

Using video for language skill-building

Integrating video content in the EFL classroom with International Express – Part 1
Keith Harding shares some ideas and video resources for Elementary Unit 6 – Santiago, Chile, focusing on comparative and superlative adjectives.

Integrating video content in the EFL classroom with International Express – Part 2
Rachel Appleby explores a video clip from Pre-Intermediate Unit 10 – Selexyz bookstore, which focuses on using ‘will’ to talk about the future, Zero Conditional and 1st Conditional.

Using video and ICT to present grammar
David Mearns, a teacher in Turkey, discusses the benefit of using video to show grammar in an authentic context and gives a few tips on how to teach grammar using video.

Developing critical thinking by using video to teach essay writing
Vanessa Medina is an English teacher, freelance ELT consultant and writer. Here she explores using videos to teach different writing structures.

How and when to use video in the classroom

Flipping and creating video presentations
Thomas Healy explores the concept of ‘flipping’ in the classroom, aided by the use of video and video presentations.

Video cameras in the hands of learners
Jamie Keddie, author of Bringing Online Video into the Classroom, looks at the benefits of handing over control of the video camera to students.

Using video in the classroom
Christopher Graham, teacher and teacher trainer, looks at the benefits of using video in the classroom.

What a 2 minute video clip can teach us…
Annie Tsai, a teacher in Taiwan, writes about how music and the video-based Everybody Up Global Sing-along changed the lives of her students last year.

Where’s the video?
Rachel Appleby, co-author of the Business one:one series, looks at some of the benefits and drawbacks of using video in the classroom.

Teaching and learning with video Part 1 – Video in the classroom
Bruce Wade considers how and why video should be used in the ELT classroom of today.

Teaching and learning with video Part 2 – The use of reportage and mini documentary
In this blog post, Bruce Wade considers how reportage can be used as a visual and factual aid to learning.

Teaching and learning with video Part 3 – Interviews, vox pops and beyond
Can video interviews be used for contextual language learning? Bruce Wade explores how different formats of video can be used to support EFL training.

 


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The Solutions Writing Challenge: Using Time Effectively

Solutions-Writing-Challenge-logo-WEBIn this blog Elna Coetzer continues to talk about ways we can use our time more effectively (inside and outside the class) when doing writing tasks.

How does one become a successful cook? The answer really is very obvious – by cooking, of course. But does that mean just cooking dish after dish, over and over again?

No. Even if you are a successful cook, it is not about the number of dishes that you prepare, but more about the focussed attention you give to each aspect of a dish. In essence, you have to practise every step of the process over and over again. Only in this way can you know which choices are correct and what possible actions should be completed in order to create a masterpiece. And only in this way can the cook use their time effectively.

If we link this with writing, similarly our students need to make choices every step of the way. And if our students do not know what the possibilities are, they cannot make the correct or best choices at any given time in the writing process. So firstly, writing is about having knowledge available – knowledge of language and vocabulary, style, layout, genre etc. Secondly, writing is about making the best choices with what you have available in order to communicate successfully with your audience. Therefore, thirdly, writing is about making these choices (based on your available knowledge) in a timely manner. Returning to our cooking analogy: if I see that the sauce is getting too thick, I need to make a choice immediately and this choice I make on the basis of my prior knowledge and experience cooking exactly the same dish.

To summarize:

1) students need a lot of support in order to complete writing tasks (the prior knowledge),
2) students need to be aware of a variety of ways of expression etc. (choices), and
3) students need to be able to access the above-mentioned aspects easily and most importantly, quickly (retrieval time).

And all of this is accomplished by targeted practice activities.

What are targeted practice activities?

Targeted practice activities are tasks that focus on a very specific aspect of the writing process, which allows students to notice in an explicit manner how something works or how something is done. These activities can take the form of vocabulary exercises, for example brainstorming language for a suspense story (extreme weather words, adverbs, etc.). Looking at the writing sections in Solutions, you will immediately be able to notice these types of tasks. These tasks are about noticing specific aspects of writing and raising the students’ awareness of the requirements when writing a specific type of text.

Why are they so useful?

These types of tasks allow students to focus on specific aspects of writing which will help them in the overall writing process. This means that if my students have practised a specific aspect extensively, they will have the knowledge required, will be able to make the best choices in a specific writing task and retrieve the information fast. Of course this is not an immediate process, but over a period of time students will become more efficient in their writing which necessarily then means that writing lessons will not be so laborious.

Here are some ideas:

  1. Focus on only one aspect in each writing section. So instead of thinking about the layout, useful vocabulary and useful language chunks in the writing task, what about choosing one aspect to address? This would allow more time to focus explicitly on one aspect, more detailed attention given to the chosen aspect and more detailed practice for the students. This would also allow for more effective correction, because you would then focus only on the aspect discussed.
  2. Use jigsaw writing tasks. For some writing tasks it may be useful to show that the style and layout students are using can be used again for different purposes: for example notes written to say thank you, to congratulate or to take a message. In these cases one could get students in groups to only work with one type of task: group A only work on thank you notes, group B on congratulatory notes etc. When they have finished all the tasks related to their note writing task, regroup the students so that they can share what they have learnt with students from the other groups. You might want to give students some kind of grid or table in which they can take notes from the other students. (We learn better when we can teach somebody else!)
  3. Collaborative writing. If, for example, your students need to write a book review, it would be more time efficient to do all the tasks in groups. This means that the thinking and planning stages (brainstorming ideas, thinking of useful lexis and language, considering the layout, etc.), the writing stage (a draft, some editing and a rewrite) and also the feedback after the writing stage (peer correction), will be performed in groups or pairs. (Learning is a social activity!)
  4. Promote self-awareness, task-awareness and strategy awareness. This is useful because this actively encourages students to analyse, evaluate and create during writing tasks (Bloom’s revised taxonomy!). This can be done by getting students to think about the purposes of tasks (both before the writing and afterwards) and also by setting evaluative questions which prompt students to look more critically at the writing process. Questions like the following are useful:
    – who is the audience?
    – why would the audience be reading this text?
    – which register should be used?
    – what is the purpose of this text? (to advertise, to thank, to invite etc.)
    – which aspects of writing do I enjoy – which aspects am I good at or do I need to work on? etc. (Learning is a conscious process!)

In conclusion, we can offer our students more differentiated and effective writing support within our time constraints by making sure that we include more targeted practice tasks, by raising our students’ awareness of the specifics of the writing process and thinking more deeply about the planning stages of writing lessons.

Join Elna in her upcoming webinar to learn more about how we can use class time more effectively in improving students’ writing skills.

register-for-webinar


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Topic knowledge and IELTS success

Girl on sofa with laptop and papersLouis Rogers, author of Skills for Business Studies and an EAP teacher, discusses whether topic knowledge and fluency is key to performing well in IELTS testing. He speaks on the subject at this year’s IATEFL.

Prior to the internet we had limited sources of information and limited access to it. Therefore if we wanted to access the information we had to develop ways to store it in our minds so that we could easily access it at a later date. With the internet we have fast access to a range of information and we have such instant access to the internet that we do not need to exert such energy on encoding it in our minds. According to Sparrow et al ‘No longer do we have to make costly efforts to find the things we want. We can ‘Google’ the old classmate, find articles online, or look up the actor who was on the tip of our tongue. When faced with difficult questions, people are primed to think about computers and that when people expect to have future access to information, they have lower rates of recall of the information itself and enhanced recall instead for where to access it’. For example, when participants in the study were asked to think of the Japanese flag many would think of a computer rather than try to picture a flag.

How is this all relevant to the IELTS exam? Many students express concern at not knowing anything about a topic. In particular, they worry about part 3 of the speaking test and part 2 of the writing. They fear facing something they feel they have nothing to say on. There could of course be a number of reasons for this. It is not necessarily the case that students commit less general knowledge to memory. Some studies such as Moore, Stroup and Mahony (2009) found that some of the IELTS topics were perceived too Eurocentric in nature. If students feel the topics are not related to them or they have never considered them, then they undoubtedly will feel disadvantaged when encountering them. To a certain extent this lack of confidence could make students hesitate, repeat ideas and even have a flatter pronunciation.

Creating materials and activities that challenge students to think and respond personally in common IELTS areas could help reduce some of their fears. IELTS lessons can provide an insight into some of this knowledge and give students the confidence to respond to such topics.

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