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Myths and Legends EFL teaching resources | OUP

Myths and Legend resources

Inspire your students with our free Myths and Legends lesson packs

Wherever you travel in the world, you will find people telling stories of their homelands, families, landscapes, histories, and much more besides. They are a part of every culture on the planet and many of these stories have been passed down through many generations.

Nowadays, you’re more likely to find characters from old tales in a hugely popular blockbuster movie, than being told about them around a fireside. Indeed, they were originally told to entertain, but that’s not all. Myths and legends were used to teach lessons; often about dangers, different cultures, and deciphering between right and wrong.

As educational tools, they’re great for language learning! Thankfully there are plenty of them, as learners really do find them captivating and worthy of classroom discussion. It’s a great way to get students talking!

Don’t worry, you don’t have to go hunting around for some old myths or legends yourself, we’ve partnered with teacher trainer Charlotte Rance to do all of that hard work for you. Download your free Myths and Legends lesson packs, available now from the Oxford Teacher’s Club!*

Inside your free lesson pack, you’ll find:

  • Myths and Legends to contextualise language
  • Vocabulary organisers
  • Diamante poem outline
  • Reading activities
  • Mythology worksheets

Choose your lesson pack below to get started.

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Had a legendary lesson with these resources? Share your experiences with the teaching community by leaving a comment below, or by Tweeting us using the handle @OUPELTGlobal.


*Not a member of the Oxford Teacher’s Club? It only take and moment to join, and it gives you access to a wide range of free-to-use online teaching resources!


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Discovering IATEFL | Brighton 2018

 

Panoramic view of Signature talk at IATEFL 2018

From the moment I heard the heavy guitar intro to ‘Whole Lotta Loveit was obvious I was listening to something markedly different, a formidable rock band. But it wasn’t until many years later that I truly got into Led Zeppelin.

I don’t know why it took so long after those first notes, but my ears, indeed my soul, thanks me today for it. I listen to LZ now as if they are a new band. Such as it was for me at IATEFL 2018, because even though the conference is legendary, and despite my twenty-plus years in ELT, this year’s event was my first. I’m appreciative now that I hadn’t attended before as it was a ‘shot in the arm’ that revitalised my passion for education, and at times it felt like I was attending a live music festival.

This year OUP Turkey sent a team (including myself) over to Brighton for IATEFL 2018. Collectively we attended hundreds of sessions. In the evenings at dinner, and the following mornings at breakfast, conversations flowed fast and free about what we’d seen, and what the day’s coming plans were. Some of us ‘jig-sawed’ our schedules to cram as many of the seemingly endless selection of enticing sessions in as we could.

The presenters at IATEFL were great, I always left the room with a meaningful takeaway. In some cases, my own pedagogical paradigm shifted – that’s saying something for an ‘old dog’ like me. The SIGs were of special interest to me, and Monday’s tech group alone was worth the trip from Istanbul, providing those of us with a bird’s eye view (through Google Cardboard and Oculus Rift for example) into the future of education (which made clearer more than ever that the future is fast upon us). But to me, even technology could not reach as deeply to my educator’s core than the human value of the SIG SEN (Special Education Needs).

If you are like me, I would bet that within a few seconds of meeting its president Varinder Unlu you’d realise just how important this special group is. For example, on Tuesday I attended Marie Delaney’s presentation on Teaching Students with Behavioural Difficulties, when it was finished all I could mutter to myself was, “Wow”. We most certainly need more voices like theirs in education, and I hope future conferences will reflect this. In my job I work with teachers extensively and can unequivocally say there is a strong need and demand from them for expert assistance in ELT from groups such as the SIG SEN.

Christopher Sheen at IATEFL 2018Other IATEFL sessions were also impactful. It’s doubtful anyone can dispute the plenaries generated meaningful discussions that lasted well beyond their presentation time. Also impressive was the Pecha Kucha performances, those too were a first for me. The presenters were fantastic but the show-stopper was Lexical Leo – he brought the house down!

From the welcoming receptions at the publishers’ booths to the freely provided glorious black fuel (coffee of course!), the support staff were A+. It was also my first time in Brighton and I hope it’s not my last. A big thank you goes out to the host city, the organisers of IATEFL, and to all of our new friends who made this feel, at least for me in some way, like I had been to a Led Zeppelin concert.

See you next year in Liverpool!

Christopher Sheen, Teacher Trainer and PD Coordinator, OUP Turkey


Christopher Sheen is a full-time Teacher Trainer and Coordinator with Oxford University Press, based in Istanbul. For more than 20 years he has engaged in all types of learner profiles in the ELT field, in North America, Asia, and since 2014 in Turkey. Before joining OUP Turkey he was the lead trainer in Japan’s largest language company in addition to being a full-time English instructor in the largest university in western Japan. He has a keen interest in class dynamics, student ownership and CPD programs.


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Getting more out of your classroom tests

Students taking testHooray! It’s time for a… [fill in the blank].

Whatever word your students come up with to fill this blank, I guess it’s not “test”. If you want to stir up some enthusiasm among your students, announcing a class test possibly isn’t best way to do it. After all, tests are much more likely to elicit groans and grumbles than a chorus of cheers.

Tests are familiar and dreary ceremonies that mark out the school year. Everyone knows the routine: Be silent. Keep your heads down. No copying! Read the instructions carefully and pay attention to the time limits. Yes, it’s boring. Yes, it’s sometimes rather unpleasant, but, like eating your spinach, it’s supposed to be good for you (although you may not remember why).

A familiar routine

At the end of the process there’s a grade or a score and it goes into the teacher’s book. It probably tells the teacher what he or she already knows. The good students, the ones who sit at the front and answer questions, get an ‘A’. Poor students, the ones who aren’t so good at languages and sit at the back and play with their phones, get an ‘F’. At the end of the year, or at the end of the course, the scores are added up and reports written, submitted to the system, filed, and forgotten.

Like their students, teachers generally find testing a necessary, but tedious chore. They may be creative in thinking of stimulating activities to spice up their classes, but when it comes to tests, they just dust off the one they used last year, photocopy the test from the teachers’ book, or cobble together a few questions from here and there. It may not be fun, but it has to be done.

Making them pay!

In some cases, the teacher uses tests as a kind of punishment. If the class doesn’t get motivated by the carrot of my thrilling classes, the teacher reasons, I’ll use the stick of giving them a thorny test to show them they need to study more seriously. In a way, it works. Sooner or later, students realise that the whole point of studying a language is not to communicate with people, but to pass tests.

On the other hand, we all recognise that tests do have their uses. Regular review of material studied in class has been shown to improve retention and promote learning. Tests help to communicate what is expected from both teachers and students: what the class ought to know and be able to do after a period of learning. They can point to what learners understood well and what they are struggling with, helping teachers to see where problems need to be tackled.

Where did it all go wrong?

So, here’s the problem. Classroom tests should benefit and enhance learning, but too often they do little to help and can have a demotivating effect. They should show us where progress is being made, but too often they only confirm what we already know about who is top of the class and who is lagging behind. Tests should be motivating, engaging, and one of the most useful things that learners do in the classroom. All too often they are none of these things.

Unfortunately, it’s not just students and teachers who find tests unpleasant. Teacher trainers also think of testing as something that (if it really has to be mentioned at all) is best left to the end of the course. The trainees are all busy looking forward to the end of the course and the upcoming holidays and so won’t resent such a distasteful topic. Testing is a big part of what teachers and students do, but it’s usually a very small part of teacher training. Perhaps it’s not surprising that it doesn’t always go well.

Ringing the changes

In the webinar, I’ll suggest that testing by teachers is something that can, with a little effort and imagination, be done so much better. Assessment and monitoring of student progress is one of the most powerful learning tools available, but it is too often left in a cupboard to rust. Let’s get it out, tune it up, and start putting it to work!

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Professor Anthony Green is Director of the Centre for Research in English Language Learning and Assessment at the University of Bedfordshire. He has published widely on language assessment and is a former President of the International Language Testing Association (ILTA). His most recent book Exploring Language Assessment and Testing (Routledge, 2014) provides trainee teachers and others with an introduction to this field. Professor Green’s main research interests concern relationships between language assessment, teaching and learning.


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Being a dyslexic English language teacher | Philip Haines

As a child I had difficulty reading and writing and some teachers would make me feel less than intelligent which often led to anxiety and low self-esteem, if I thought my limitations were to be exposed. This was especially true when I had to read aloud, which was the perfect opportunity for the rest of the class to observe my apparent stupidity. I was subsequently diagnosed with dyslexia at the age of 15.

Having experienced language difficulties as a child, the thought of being an English teacher never crossed my mind. However, when I moved from the UK to Mexico my only real job prospect was English language teaching. I started as an English teaching rather reluctantly, but soon found that I was quite good at it. I believe that this is partly a consequence of my dyslexia. I can see three ways in which dyslexia has helped me as a language teacher.

Patience

The fact that some people need to devote a lot of time and effort to learning has always been obvious to me. If a student needs to hear, see and practice a piece of language many times, then it is my job to provide that for the student. If in the following classes more work is needed, then I accept this as being perfectly normal. Learning takes as long as it takes and getting frustrated doesn’t help anybody, least of all the students who need the most support.

Strategic awareness

As an adult I still can’t spell very well, but like many dyslexic adults I have developed strategies for remembering certain spellings. Non-dyslexic people seem to learn to spell with little conscious effort. I, on the other hand, have to approach the spelling of most words with a deliberate strategy. This has given me a level of strategic awareness for spelling that most non-dyslexic people have never had to develop. I incorporate these strategies into my teaching when needed.

Creativity

Although creativity is not exclusive to the dyslexic mind, I have a fairly good level of creativity, which comes partly from having to develop learning strategies. Also as a child I found comfort in the arts and crafts because my learning difficulties were never exposed. It’s so true that we become good at what we enjoy, and more often than not that’s because we devote more time and effort to those activities. In this context, my creative abilities had a chance to develop. Being creative in teaching has its advantages because it helps the teacher respond to the ever changing dynamics of the classroom. It also makes you feel comfortable with the creative process, which inevitably involves getting things wrong many times before finding the right solution. And finally, and perhaps most importantly, creativity in the classroom makes for a more engaging and fun teaching and learning experience.

Interested in inclusive teaching? Our latest position paper offers teachers some great tools and strategies for teaching students with learning difficulties. Click here to take a look.


Philip Haines is the Senior Consultant for Oxford University Press, Mexico. As well as being a teacher and teacher trainer, he is also the co-author of several series, many of which are published by OUP.


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Learning difficulties in the ELT classroom: How to identify them and what to do

As an English Language teacher you may have students with unidentified additional learning needs in your classroom. Often these learning difficulties are ‘invisible’, not easy to recognise in class, or hidden behind other issues such as poor behaviour, and an apparent lack of motivation.

Identifying ‘invisible’ learning difficulties

Difficulties which have not been identified by any formal assessment can surface in a variety of ways. They may first appear in an English Language class because the focus is on activities that require students to communicate and interact with other students, using all four skills of listening, reading, writing and speaking.

Although it is not the teacher’s job to diagnose learning difficulties, it’s important to know how to recognise when a student might be struggling because of a learning difficulty.

General indicators

Indicators that students might be experiencing difficulties greater than expected for their age and level include:

  • having problems understanding and following instructions
  • finding it difficult to concentrate and being easily distracted
  • having difficulty with tasks which require fine or gross motor skills
  • being able to speak much more fluently than they can write
  • finding it difficult to start tasks or never managing to finish them
  • avoiding doing tasks
  • having problems participating in whole-class or group activities
  • appearing not to listen, or not responding to questions or instructions
  • having problems making friends and maintaining relationships.

These indicators reflect three main issues : Behavioural, Communication, Social Skills

Behavioural   

Learning difficulties often first present themselves in classes through poor behaviour and non-compliance or non-completion of tasks. Many of these issues relate to impaired working memory. Working memory is the part of your brain which holds information long enough to act on it. When working memory is impaired, students find it difficult to remember and act upon instructions, to copy things down correctly from the board, to remember what they have just read in a reading text. This shows up in class as

  • Not writing things down properly or avoiding writing down from the board
  • Not following instructions or continually asking what they should do
  • Appearing to switch off when reading longer texts and losing focus very quickly
  • Appearing disorganised and forgetful

Communication issues

Learning difficulties can also show up as communication issues. They can occur in receptive language (understanding) and/or expressive language (producing). Students find it difficult to understand what they have to do or to show what they know. It can lead to students having difficulties in communicating with the teacher and their peers. They may not want to work in groups, appearing withdrawn and isolated, sometimes not understanding humour or everyday conversation.

Social skills issues

Social skills issue can relate to language issues or social and emotional difficulties. Students may have problems taking turns, showing empathy, and understanding other students’ perspectives. As the language classroom operates on social interactions, lessons can present a real challenge to these students.

These indicators do not necessarily mean a student does not care about learning. They can be indicators of students with additional needs such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention deficit, speech, and language difficulties or ASC (autistic spectrum condition).

However, most students experience some of these difficulties from time to time. If you’re concerned about a student in your class, gather objective information about how often the problems occur and how serious they are. Consider:

  • Is the problem across all classes and at all times of day?
  • Is the problem in certain class groupings?
  • Where is the child sitting? Can they hear and see properly?
  • Who is the child sitting with? Does this make a difference?
  • What kinds of tasks can the child do?
  • When the child is engaged, what engages them?
  • Is the work too easy or too difficult? How do you know?
  • Does the work involve a lot of writing? Sitting still? Copying from the board?
  • Is the child only noticed for negative things? What are their strengths?
  • Does the child have trouble following instructions?
  • Does the child have trouble remembering visual and/or auditory information?

Teaching principles

The important thing to remember is that all students need to feel safe and valued in their class. Good teachers provide this for all their students by maintaining positive relationships, clear structure, routines, consistency and clarity.

Use a multi-sensory approach for teaching and checking understanding. For example,  give instructions with visuals, gestures and words, use different ways to check understanding such as mini whiteboards and traffic lights signals. Use visual icons on your board to show the order of teaching in your lesson.

Focus on developing positive relationships with your students. Notice if you are only interacting negatively with some students, those for example, who are always causing disruptions or are slow to respond. Get to know them as people, beyond any labels. Every student is unique and different and brings something important to the class. Avoid jumping to assumptions that they are ‘lazy’ or ‘don’t care’.

Use an assessment for learning approach, such as 2 stars and a wish, where you encourage students to focus on their own progress against specific criteria rather than on overall attainment levels.

Celebrate their strengths rather than focusing on their weaknesses. These can be academic or personal strengths, such as kindness, perseverance, and good humour.

Create an inclusive ethos in class. To do this, try using class contracts which are value driven rather than rules driven. ‘In this class we give people extra time if they need it’. ’In this class we help each other.’

Use the English class to develop social skills in all students. Try activities like ‘find 5 things in common with your partner, or ‘5 things which are different’, this creates a sense of belonging and allows students to celebrate difference.

Remember that it is not your job to diagnose. If you are concerned about a student, gather as much information as you can. Discuss with other teachers to determine whether the difficulties are only in English, or are also in other lessons. Find out whom in your school is responsible for additional learning needs, typically a school psychologist, special educational needs co-ordinator or manager responsible for learning should be there to talk through your concerns.

For more on identifying and working with students with learning difficulties, join me for my upcoming webinar on the 20th June 2018. After the webinar you’ll understand the most common signs of learning difficulties, and will know how you to best work with students affected by them.

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Marie Delaney is a teacher trainer, educational psychotherapist, and director of The Learning Harbour, educational consultancy, in Cork, Ireland. She worked for many years with students of all ages who have SEN, in particular in the area of behavioural difficulties. She has worked with Ministries of Education and trained teachers in several countries on inclusion policy, curriculum, and inclusive pedagogy. Her main interests are bringing therapeutic approaches into teaching and learning, supporting teachers in their dealings with challenging pupils and promoting inclusive education principles for all. Marie is the author of Special Educational Needs (Oxford University Press, 2016).