Almost thirty years ago, when I first started teaching, watching a movie in the classroom was considered a ‘Friday afternoon treat’ – something to give the students as a reward and, perhaps in some cases, to give teachers a chance to catch up on some marking! Some schools used movies randomly and at inappropriate levels, meaning students often got little to nothing in terms of language learning. Continue reading
Thank you to everyone who attended the webinar ‘Strategies for EMI/CLIL Success for Primary Learners’! During the webinar I had defined EMI and CLIL while addressing a few strategies applying the CLIL approach focusing on primary learners.
EMI – English as a Medium of Instruction
Information communicated to the learner (English being their non-native language) in the classroom is in English. This includes subject content, student materials and resources (textbooks and or coursebooks), and lecture instructions.
CLIL – Content and Language Integrated Learning
CLIL refers to, situations where subjects, or parts of subjects, are taught through a foreign language with dual-focused aims, namely the learning of content and the simultaneous learning of a foreign language.
[D. Marsh, 1994]
Strategy Focus for Primary Learners with CLIL – Use of Visuals and its Benefits
Visual aids are tools and instruments teachers will use to encourage student learning by making the process easier, simpler, and more interesting for the learner. Visual aids usage supports information acquisition by allowing learners to digest and comprehend knowledge more easily.
- Examples of visual aids, but not limited to, are: Pictures, models, charts, maps, videos, slides, diagrams, flashcards, and classroom props.
Thank you all for your interesting questions! Here I will do my best to respond to a couple of those I could not answer during the webinar.
What challenges do students in EMI [classes] face?
A student’s stage in education, (i.e. Primary, secondary, etc.) would result in different challenges. Overall, there are usually two main factors to consider in an EMI learning environment; first the student’s native tongue is not English, and second, the acquisition of the subject content being taught. Since the learner is dealing with new and fresh information in a relative new subject, those challenges being difficult on their own, a strong command of English would be a prerequisite.
That being understood, without the language ability, challenges could include difficulties comprehending subject concepts or themes, struggles communicating with the teacher or classroom peers, even troubles using materials such as their textbooks, workbooks, or class resources.
I am not stating that a student must be 100% fluent in English for EMI to be successful, but since EMI classrooms do not focus solely on English language learning, an appropriate level of English is needed to help learners reach their goals.
Does CLIL overlap with the PPP approach?
I believe that CLIL and the PPP method can overlap. Just to clarify the PPP methodology, this style of English teaching follows the 3Ps – presentation, practice, production. This method deals with a set process of how to deliver content to a L2 student, then provides support for language usage and application. Though CLIL does not encompass or represent all learning styles, it does provide a more flexible set of principles and guidelines. To paraphrase our previous definition, CLIL is established as a learning environment that satisfies the two goals of learning content and learning a foreign language equally. I like to think of the PPP method as a language delivery system. If an English teacher is teaching her L2 students science and writing skills, the PPP method can be used just as effectively as with a teacher teaching L1 grammar to an L1 classroom.
Many of the questions that were included were in regards to characteristics of a CLIL classroom/lesson. For that, I would like to recommend a short article for additional information.
The British Council has an article by Steve Darn that addresses CLIL’s framework and expectation in the classroom with supplemental resources: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/clil-a-lesson-framework. I also would like to recommend some other resources that I have found very helpful as well for CLIL and EMI in the classroom:
- Ball, P., Kelly, K., Clegg, J. (2015). Putting CLIL into Practice. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Deller, S., Price, C. (2007). Teaching Other Subjects Through English. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Missed my webinar? click the link below to watch the recording!
Interested in EMI and CLIL? Get practical recommendations from our experts with our position paper. Click here to download.
Joon Lee has been involved in the EFL and ESL educational community at the positions of Academic Director, Content and Curriculum Developer, and Academic Advisor. He has been fortunate to pursue his interests in developmental learning from both in and out of the classroom. At OUP he is part of the Asia Educational Services team and shares his experiences providing teacher training and professional development workshops. He holds great respect for educators and administrators who show passion towards nurturing a learner’s path to success.
The term ‘Enquiry Based Learning’ (EBL) was first coined back in the early 1900s when two esteemed psychologists, Vygotsky and Piaget, took a closer look at the mechanics of how we learn, or more accurately, how children learn.
This surfaced a debate: is learning something you do, or something you’re taught?
Around 1936 Piaget undertook a systematic study of cognitive development. Piaget was intrigued by the reasons children gave for wrong answers to questions that required logical thinking. He believed that these incorrect answers revealed striking differences between the thinking of adults and children. What Piaget sought to understand was the way in which fundamental concepts like the very idea of number, time, quantity, causality, justice and so on emerged.
‘Discovery learning’ was one outcome derived from his work in the 1960s. The idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring was seen as central to the transformation of the primary school curriculum in England.
Although crucially the work of these two great minds contributes to the EBL practices we see today, it was Vygotsky’s work which is more recognisable in the primary classroom today.
According to Vygotsky, adults are an important source of cognitive development. Sometimes also referred to as ‘The More Knowledgeable Other’ (MKO), they have a higher ability or a better understanding of the subject being investigated/ researched. While it is implied this is the role of the adult Piaget stressed the importance of peer to peer support and collaboration on successful learning.
The ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ (ZPD) is a crucial concept linking together this work to form the basis of EBL we recognise in today’s classrooms: The ZPD is the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner, such as a more knowledgeable peer, an expert, via scaffold or specific instruction.
How does EBL benefit you as a teacher and facilitator of learning?
When you become a facilitator for children to take responsibility for what and how they learn, you help them gain a deeper understanding of the work they are covering, as well as building and developing skills required for tackling issues that will arise in the real world. Through this facilitation, you will be encouraging them not to just seek information and facts based on the initial outcomes, but to search further into their own interests and relate these to
As they take more ownership of their learning, you will see an increase in ownership and participation. They get to see the work as more relevant to their needs, which will enthuse and inspire them to apply themselves more in lessons.
EBL allows for independent and differentiated learning, group and peer-to-peer, meaning the children are able to work at their own pace, realise their own abilities and challenge in a positive learning environment, when well established and integral to the teaching and learning.
Derry Richardson is an outstanding classroom practitioner and leading mathematics teacher, with experience teaching across the primary phases and early years. Currently, she is the Head of Professional Development for Oxford University Press’s Education Division.
The publication of the paper The Role of the First Language in English Medium instruction (EMI) marks a benchmark moment in both local and international EMI contexts. Although educational organisations have been researching the issue of students schooled in a language other than their first/dominant language (L1) for many years, the results of that research have been more or less neglected in discussions about EMI. Why this is the case is unclear, but the results have been the same. Despite concerted efforts to bring about awareness of the myriad issues caused by learning in a second or additional language by organisations such as UNESCO¹, EMI schools have steadfastly continued to maintain the monolingual habitus² of ‘English only’.
In international schools, this is often caused by the real or perceived prestige of having the ‘opportunity’ to study in English. When we talk about something as being a privilege we tend not to see the possible negative aspects. Regardless of the prestige of
So what do we know about the impact of using the L1 in EMI education? The answer is, quite a lot!
There are three areas which have consistent research support when discussing L1 in education:
- Having access to learning in the stronger language is better for academic outcomes. This point is the easiest to understand; it’s harder to learn something in a language you don’t master, as your attention is dividing between learning language and learning content.
- Use of L1 in EMI is associated with better outcomes in English proficiency. This seems counter-intuitive, as more English would seem to develop English better. But again, accessing learning through the stronger language ensures content mastery, which then leaves students time to attend to developing language. The L1 is also tied to cognitive development, and the better a student develops in terms of cognition, the better a learner they become, which enhances language acquisition as well³.
- Access to L1 in learning is associated with higher proficiency levels in the L1. Many schools don’t consider the development of students’ L1 as their job, but students should never lose a language in the quest for acquiring English; bilingualism should be the goal for all students who arrive in an EMI situation with another language. The school supporting their L1 is a powerful message about the value of their other language and bilingualism.
There are other areas of a student’s school experience that can be positively influenced by the presence of their L1 as well. Students who are able to use all of their linguistic resources for learning are more likely to be engaged in learning and motivated. Students who feel that their “whole self” is seen and valued at school will have a more positive attitude towards school and be more involved socially. This impacts on student well-being and agency, and can have positive consequences across all aspects of teaching and learning.
Moving from Why to How
Bilingual programmes are not always possible, for reasons ranging from the extent of language diversity to resourcing and staffing. In cases where the student body is too linguistically diverse to be served by a bilingual programme, there are still many ways to bring all students’ first languages into the classroom. An area that is currently the focus of much development in terms of research and practice is translanguaging. There are two types of translanguaging that we can develop in the classroom. The first, and simplest, is serendipitous translanguaging. This involves allowing and encouraging students to use their languages to help scaffold learning, to translate when they don’t understand, to share their languages with their friends, and to consider how their languages work as compared to English. All of these goals can be achieved through simple but meaningful teaching moments: asking a student to translate instructions for a new-to-English students, using Google translate to ask a student why they are upset, encouraging students to explain to each other how to say hello in their languages, or how verbs work! A language-inclusive environment will allow for the development of all of these classrooms moments that will support learning, support identity and support both L1 and English development.
The second type is planned translanguaging. This form of translanguaging is an extension of language into the curriculum, to support both learning and language development. Teachers who plan for language integration consider the context and content to find areas where learning would be enhanced through L1 access. This may mean having students do initial research on a topic in their own languages to build knowledge, or having students work in same-language groups to discuss and debate what they are learning. It can also mean integrating L1 into writing, by having students do initial planning in their L1 and then write in English. All of these examples provide support for content-learning, support for English learning, and support for the continued growth in L1.
Given what we now know conclusively about the importance for all students of having their first languages involved in their learning experiences, there is no longer any excuse for not making this happen. Serendipitous translanguaging is straightforward and simple to implement in any classroom, and provides ample opportunities for L1 use. Planned translanguaging is a longer-term endeavour but would seem to be a way forward for schools that are committed to the holistic development of their students. EMI schools should begin to investigate their student populations and determine the best way forward to support the language and learning development of all their students.
Eowyn Crisfield is a Canadian-educated specialist in languages across the curriculum, including EAL/ELL, home languages, bilingual and immersion education, super-diverse schools and translanguaging. Her focus is on equal access to learning and language development for all students, and on appropriate and effective professional development for teachers working with language learners. She maintains a popular blog for parents and teachers (onraisingbilingualchildren.com) and writes regularly for other publications. She is co-author of the recent book “Linguistic and Cultural Innovation in Schools: The Languages Challenge” (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2018, with Jane Spiro, co-author). She is also a lecturer at Oxford Brookes University, in the Department of Education.
¹UNESCO. (2016). If you don’t understand, how can you learn? United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. New York: UNESCO. Retrieved December 12, 2016
²Gogolin, I. (1997). The “monolingual habitus” as the common feature in teaching in the language of the majority in different countries. Per Linguam, 13(2), 38-49. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5785/13-2-187
³Cummin, J. (1981). The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students. In C. s. Education (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3-49). Los Angeles: California state Department of Education.
⁴Collier, V., & Thomas, W. (2012). Dual Language Education For a Transformed World. Albuquerque: Fuente Press.
During the recent webinars I presented for OUP on Project-Based Learning, I set out a framework which could be used in ELT.
Project-Based Learning is defined by the Buck Institute for Education (2018) as a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging, and complex question, problem, or challenge.
In order for this to be more accessible for English Language Teaching (ELT) we need to set out a framework and be selective to make pedagogic sense.
Generate and stimulate: This has to come from the teacher initially, especially if you are dealing with young learners or teens. It is about knowing your students and knowing what will motivate them in terms of the topics and activities you are going to ask of them. Generate interest by discussing issues that directly affect them, and this will stimulate them further. It’s the teacher’s job to build curiosity and passion in to the project, adding and stirring when necessary. As ideas are generated, areas that need further exploring should become exposed. As a group, decide which problem/area you want to explore.
Define and refine: From this you need to define a driving question – one where the answer cannot be simply ‘Googled’. Each class or group within a class should have a different driving question that is specific to their interests. You may start with defining quite a big question such as ‘What size should the trains be?‘ And refine this down to ‘How can we get as many people on the train as possible?‘. These questions should not be written in ‘educationese’ like ‘What methods could be used to maximise the capacity of the trains?’, but worded by and for the learners.
Designate and Collaborate: At this stage, the project is truly designed, and the goals are set using SMART principles (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Timely). The tasks and activities are designated to the learners who want them or feel they would like the opportunity to do them. There should be a strong sense of collaboration, so that not one student feels like they are doing all the work, or are isolated. At this point it is a good idea to visually display the goals which have been set, who is doing what, and timescales. This is an opportunity to value each and every member of the class.
Compare and Share: It is essential that there is a continuum of input and feedback, and this should come from peers as well as the teacher. Getting groups to compare what they are doing and sharing their ideas will only make all of the projects better. Students get a better idea of their own performance by seeing what others have done and comparing themselves in relation to each other. Giving and taking critical feedback is also an important part of development; using the THINK mnemonic (see diagram above) should set expectations and provide guidelines for peer feedback. Having a ‘growth mindset’ is about learning how to receive and use feedback productively, accepting critiques as suggestions for improvement rather criticisms of failure.
Enhance and Advance: Learners start off using the knowledge and skills that they have, but then develop these further through the tasks or research that they are doing. This is what makes perfect pedagogic sense, where they have created a context that interests them, which in turn has defined the language that they need to complete a task. This integrates language, as well as content and skills development. Essentially they are providing inherently important reasons for using the language. According to Patsy Lightbown, a lot of language is acquired through meaningful language usage. However, many features of language cannot be acquired, so it is our job as English Language teachers to provide them with the language they need to complete the task.
PBL allows us to adapt goals for learners at different proficiency levels, using the content the learners have created as a backdrop provides meaningful language. The focus should also be on developing Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) such as reasoning, enquiry and discussion, creative thinking, self and peer evaluation, and hypothesizing. Compare these skills to Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) such as remembering information, ordering information, defining objects and checking understanding. Other skills that need to be enhanced are 21st Century skills (for more information click here). These include: Content Knowledge and 21st Century Themes, Learning and Innovation Skills, Information, Media and Technology Skills, and Life and Career Skills.
Review and Revise: Students look back at the whole project and review what they have done, being critical of their own work. Similar to the Compare and Share stage but students need to turn the THINK questioning on to their own work and evaluate and state what they like, and what they would have done differently if they were doing it again. This helps to consolidate learning and assess what learning has taken place.
Produce and present: This is the final product and it should be presented to more than just class peers. It doesn’t have to be a poster, display, or a PPT presentation – with the advancement of technology there are so many other ways to publish the work that your students have done, from infographics to using Minecraft! Some of the other suggestions that came out through the webinar include: leaflets, videos, photo stories, podcasts, school magazines, comics, e-books, school websites, blogs, Prezzi presentations, puzzles, links with QR codes, video tutorials, Padlet, and using Google Forms and documents.
The PBL Framework is presented in a circle, as more often than not, more interest and motivation is generated during the presentation stage, stimulating more areas of inquiry and leaving questions that still need exploring. Perhaps the presentation is from another group of learners which generates and stimulates conversation with your group of learners.
The framework is only complete when we add the student to the centre, making sure that they are at the heart of the project. It is their project, rather than the teacher’s, and that needs to reflect the needs and interests of the learners.
As teachers, we need to coordinate and manage the whole process at every stage. It’s not about giving it to the learner and walking away until a final product is handed in. It’s a lot more work for us! We have to manage and micro-manage each section, stage, and learner to make sure they are all benefitting from PBL.
Lastly and most importantly, we shouldn’t lose sight of the fact that we are language teachers and we need to provide language input, so at each stage of the framework, there should be time allocated to language input. We need to provide the learners with the language they need in order to carry out the tasks, do the research, present their findings. That means a lot of different structures will be needed – we can’t expect them to know it all already. There are a lot of opportunities to develop the different skills (Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing) while on the PBL path. These all need to feature somewhere in your lesson plans and making sure that each learner is not neglecting development of any of the skills.
Qs: Can PBL be used in the language class for adults? Is it difficult for primary students? Does PBL make sense in evening schools as well where you meet 1 1/2 hour each week for 12 times?
A: There were a lot of questions on whether PBL is suitable for different ages and levels and teaching situations. The PBL framework could, and should, be used as that – a ‘framework’ – where you adapt the content and language according to your learners, their age, stage of development, interests, language competency and number of hours you have available. There is no time scale because you can adapt it to suit the time you have available, choosing which sections of the framework to focus on if you need to.
Qs: I’ve often had students who can produce understandable but incorrect language. How much correction is really meaningful for projects? Often we need really disciplined students to complete tasks in English. How can you make them speak only English? You mentioned having language input between each stage; would this be topic related or functional language for completing the projects (collaborative phrases etc)?
A: A lot of comments came up about language and how your students didn’t have enough language to do PBL. This is where you need to identify what language they will need to do a specific task, not just the content language but functional language too, and provide some input on that, like you would in a normal language lesson. At each stage of the framework they will need different functional language, as well as different content language. Remember the ‘Enhance and Advance’ stage/element is to start with what they know and can build upon, both in terms of content and language. Providing language input is a key to a successful PBL environment. When teaching in monolingual situations, you need to create a positive learning environment where the students want to speak in English (as you would in your normal lessons). I usually nominate one student in each group (a different student each time, and not necessarily the strongest) to be the ‘English Captain’, giving them the responsibility to make sure as much English is used as possible.
Q: How do you get ideas for topics? Not all students are interested in one topic, how can we manage that? What happens if several students want to tackle the same aspect of a question? Should I have to decide with my pupils what content is?
A: Karen suggested that maybe the teacher could give a choice of projects, and students vote to choose collaboratively. One of the main objectives of PBL is to encourage collaboration, and it starts with the choice of topic. To get inspiration about some of the topics to use have a look at some of the links listed below. Defining a point of inquiry is just the start, as this soon gets refined to something more specific. If there are several students who wish to explore the same area, that is fine, it will make the ‘Compare and Share’ stage more generative and it will raise the overall level of the projects considerably. Like with all language lessons you will want to set the students home learning tasks (I’ve stopped using the term ‘homework’ as I don’t want them to get the right answers just for me to mark, but because they are learning).
At the end of the session I shared that my life philosophy is based on MMM, which is a more learner-centred, child friendly view of how language is acquired used by University of Nottingham ITE team.
MMM; Meeting new language, Manipulating it and Making the language your own.
This also supports the pedagogic reasoning behind PBL, where the learners are ‘Meeting’ the topic/content/language/ driving question, ‘Manipulating’ it as they research and develop their ideas, and by doing a presentation they are ‘Making’ it their own; they are taking ownership of the topic/content and language so that it belongs to them.
So now that you have MET PBL, it is up to you to decide if you want to MANIPULATE the ideas suggested to your individual teaching situation. If you do that, then you will certainly have a feeling of OWNING PBL…having MADE it your own. And this is exactly the sensation you want to create in your lessons, so that your learners leave with a sense of owning the project, owning the content, owning the skills, and owning the language.
Jane-Maria Harding da Rosa worked as a Director of Studies at International House Porto where she specialised in teaching younger learners. She gained her Master’s in TEYL, and now works for IH Newcastle as a senior teacher and CELTA and DELTA tutor. She also presents workshops and training sessions. She contributed significantly to the writing and re-structuring of the IH Certificate of teaching Young learners and Teenagers, which is now assessed by Cambridge Language Assessment unit.
Brewster, Ellis and Girard. (1993). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. Penguin.
Buck institute for Education. (2018). What is PBL? In project based learning, teachers make learning come alive for students. [online] Available at: https://www.bie.org/about/what_pbl. Accessed 10/5/18.
Lightbown, P. (2014). Focus on Content-Based Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP.
BIE PBL YouTube Video Project Based Learning: Explained
What is project-based learning? 15 PBL ideas fit for your classroom
by Lucie Renard — Jun 22, 2017
25 Creative Ways to Incorporate More Project Based Learning in the Classroom
By Terri Eichholz April 18, 2016
Buck institute for Education. (2018). What is PBL? In project based learning, teachers make learning come alive for students. [online] Available at: https://www.bie.org/about/what_pbl.
Other interesting YouTube videos and Blogs you may find useful:
How to Design Project-Based Learning Activities EUN Academy: https://youtu.be/_3yAODXnAsg
MMM : How many TLAs do we really need? Is there room for one more?
By Jane-Maria Harding da Rosa
There are SO MANY resources and inspiration on Pinterest which gives you links to blogs and websites.