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The Complete Professional Development Guide: Books You Need To Read In 2020

man reading bookTeaching during COVID-19 has challenged us to adapt quickly and learn on the go this year! But how much time have you spent on your own professional development, and how prepared do you feel for the start of next term? As the holidays approach there is a sense of relief as we get to have a well-deserved break, but it is also a chance to get ready for the new term, whatever it may bring. To help you prepare for every scenario, we’ve created an essential reading list with English language teachers in mind! Explore the pros and cons and get practical tips for teaching online, prepare to assess your students in new ways, and learn to prioritise your own wellbeing. We’ve got you covered with best-sellers and the latest professional development books and papers written by ELT experts.

 

Our Professional Development Book Of The Year

Teacher Wellbeing book cover

Teachers… have the power in their own hands to make things better and to nurture and enhance their own wellbeing. This is a welcome message at any time, but perhaps most of all now when there is so much uncertainty in the world.

– English Teaching Professional

Teacher Wellbeing

Our book of the year serves as a practical guide to help individual teachers promote and nurture their wellbeing. Discover effective tips and strategies to help you meet your needs, and improve your wellbeing by finding techniques that work for you. You’ll also find tips to help you maintain a healthy work-life balance, and nurture your personal and professional relationships.

 

Three Professional Development Best Sellers

Bestselling professional development book covers

  • Exploring Psychology in Language Learning and Teaching: This award-winning book explores key areas of educational and social psychology and considers their relevance to language teaching. Learn learners’ and teachers’ beliefs about how a subject should be learned and taught, relationships with others, the role of emotions in learning, and more…
  • How Languages are Learned 4th edition: Prize-winning How Languages are Learned shares how language learning theory works in the classroom and provides you with practical techniques and activities developed from research. Perfect for new and experienced practising teachers.
  • Teaching Young Language Learners 2nd edition: A clear introduction to teaching young learners. It covers child development, L1 and L2 learning, vocabulary and grammar, and more by combining theory and practice in an accessible way. It draws on up-to-date international research and classroom practice.

 

Support For Teaching Online

  • Mobile Learning: Get clear guidance and essential support for using mobile devices in and outside the language classroom. Full of practical ideas and activities, it emphasizes the power of the mobile device as a tool for language learning.
  • Learning Technology: Learning Technology provides a clear guide to how teachers can introduce learning technology to the classroom. Explore different ways of putting it into practice, including virtual learning environments, social learning platforms, blended learning and the flipped classroom, mobile learning, and adaptive learning.

 

Recommended Assessment Books

  • Language Assessment for Classroom Teachers: This book presents a new approach to developing and using classroom-based language assessments. The approach is based on current theory and practice in the field of language assessment and on an understanding of the assessment needs of teachers. Split into four parts, this book is the ultimate practical guide to classroom-based language assessment, with advice that can be applied in any classroom setting – both real and virtual! A professional development must-read!
  • Focus on Assessment: This book develops your ability to design, implement, and evaluate language assessment in your classroom, helping you relate the latest research and pedagogy to your own teaching context. Explore the multiple roles teachers play in language assessment such as ensuring a positive assessment experience and promoting learner autonomy, and improve your assessment competence with activities that help you to apply assessment theory to your own classroom.

 

Recommended Vocabulary Books

  • How Vocabulary is LearnedHow Vocabulary Is Learned discusses the major issues that relate to the teaching and learning of vocabulary. Written by leading voices in the field of second language acquisition, the book evaluates a wide range of practical activities designed to help boost students’ vocabulary learning, starting with ‘Which words should be learned?’…
  • Focus on Vocabulary Learning: Explore teaching vocabulary to language learners aged 5-18. Discover the considerable challenges of learning the vocabulary of a new language from a range of perspectives, and become equipped to teach with practical solutions. Find a rich variety of useful activities and examples from real classrooms, and ‘spotlight studies’ of important research, that link theory to practice.

 

ELT Position Papers

Our position papers provide expert advice and guidance on the burning issues shaping English Language Teaching today. Download them for free and you’ll also receive exclusive training and resources for your classroom.

ELT Position Paper covers

  • Global Skills:  Creating Empowered 21st Century Learners: Help every learner develop the skills they need for success in a fast-changing modern world! Get expert advice and discover the five global skills clusters that prepare learners for lifelong success and fulfilment.
  • Oxford 3000 and Oxford 5000: The Most Important Words to Learn in English: Interested in expanding your learners’ vocabulary? Discover our core wordlist of all the most important words for learners to know! Deliver a well-founded vocabulary syllabus with confidence, and encourage independent vocabulary learning at home.
  • Inclusive Practices in English Language Teaching: Create an inclusive classroom, and make learning a positive experience for each and every learner. Discover expert advice to help you identify and support students with special educational needs, and pick up practical solutions for building an inclusive classroom environment.

Professional Development On The Go!

Download our free focus papers to access bite-sized insights and practical tips for the ELT classroom! Each paper is easy to use, and immediately useful, covering topics like:

  • Online Teaching
  • Project-Based Learning
  • Mediation
  • Oracy Skills
  • Managing Online Learning
  • And more!

 

Which new teaching skills are you trying this year?

Let us know in the comments below!

 


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How to take your students on a virtual field trip | Mireille Yanow

field tripMany of us recently have had to take our classrooms online. Learning the basics of virtual teaching is hard enough! Like me, you’ve probably had connection issues and are making do with limited equipment. These challenges are all part of your daily routine and you’re meeting them head-on. As teachers, we want to continue delivering the same quality education during lockdown as we were in the classroom, but are wondering how. You might have found that many of your tried-and-tested lesson plans no longer work in an online setting, and keeping primary students engaged can pose a particular problem! Thankfully, as the rest of the world adapts, some new, innovative, and engaging options are emerging. There are learning platforms with educational games (e.g. education.com) and interactive stories, however my favourite lessons right now are virtual museum tours.

Take your students on a virtual adventure

There are a plethora of museums around the world that you can virtually visit with your students. All of these ‘virtual excursions’ can be turned into fun lessons. You can take your students anywhere in the world and truly see the world’s best museums! Personally, I’ve been taking students on weekly ‘trips’ to some of my favourite museums (details below). Before any of my class visits, I put together a few easy pre-questions, level adjusted to ensure that my students are learning English while having fun. Here are some ideas to inspire you.

  • For younger or lower-level students, I want to make sure they understand the word ‘museum’, thus I start the lesson like this: We’re going to a museum today. What is a museum? If students know what a museum is, you can have a short conversation about museums they’ve been to, or their favourite kind of museum. After the visit ask students if they were correct about what a museum was or if they liked this museum as much as ones they’ve been to before.
  • Put together a list of vocabulary you want the students to find while we are at the museum. Then, during the visit ask the students to find the objects and describe them g. Find a mammoth. What colour is it?
  • Museum visits can be tied into any lessons, for example:
    • Numbers: Count how many animals we see at the museum [for natural history or science museums, or zoos!].
    • Colours: Find xxxxx – what colour is it?
    • Adjectives: Describe what a mammoth looks like.
  • Most of the virtual museums have online floor maps that can be used for teaching directions. I love this aspect of museum tours!

Now, on to my top 5 museum tours to visit virtually (I’ve also added some teaching ideas that you could try, but make it your own)!

  1. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

There really is so much to see here! Animals, gems (including the Hope Diamond), dinosaurs, plants, geological history, etc. Teachers can use it for directions (there are arrows that lead the way virtually), naming animals, colours, comparisons, Wh questions, past tense.

  1. The Vatican, Sistine Chapel

This museum is beautiful. There are 7 other Vatican museums that can be visited virtually, but the Sistine Chapel is one we all know. Teachers can use this tour for teaching colours, adjectives, special awareness (it is huge – even online you can sense it), body parts, and again, Wh- questions.

  1. Pretend City, Children’s Museum

This museum is awesome! It is what it says on the tin: a pretend city. Teachers can use it for teaching directions, signs (lots of stop signs), names of buildings in a town, colours, measurements (there is a neat feature where you can measure the size of the room), Wh-questions (see a pattern with all the museums?), imperative, comparisons, likes/dislikes.

  1. Balenciaga y la Pintura Española exhibition at the Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza

This exhibit is where fashion and art meet! Great for teaching clothing vocabulary and comparisons, especially “same” and “different”.

  1. Lego House Tour (Youtube Video – more advance can be used for listening)

Although this isn’t an actual virtual visit to the museum, this video takes you on a tour of the Lego House museum. The tour guide speaks at a moderate level, so it can be used for more advanced students. Younger and less-advanced students will get a lot out of this tour also: colours, size, likes/dislikes (actually all of the museums are good for this!), vocabulary, numbers, etc.

We hope that these ideas are useful! If you know of any other virtual tools or places to visit, please do add them to the comments.


Mireille Yanow spent 6 years teaching English to primary and secondary students in Greece and Spain before embarking in her publishing career. Mireille spent 4 years as an editor leading the development of a primary English Language course before moving back to the United States. She is currently Senior Publisher at Oxford University Press and volunteers at the local library as an ELT teacher.

 

 

 


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Assessment Literacy – the key concepts you need to know!

student filling out a test in the classroomResearch shows that the typical teacher can spend up to a third of their professional life involved in assessment-related activities (Stiggins and Conklin, 1992), yet a lack of focus on assessment literacy in initial teacher training has left many teachers feeling less than confident in this area. In this blog, we’ll be dipping our toes into some of the key concepts of language testing. If you find this interesting, be sure to sign up for my Oxford English Assessment Professional Development assessment literacy session.

What is assessment literacy?

As with many terms in ELT, there are competing definitions for the term ‘assessment literacy’, but for this blog, we’re adopting Malone’s (2011) definition:

Assessment literacy is an understanding of the measurement basics related directly to classroom learning; language assessment literacy extends this definition to issues specific to language classrooms.

As you can imagine, language assessment literacy (LAL) is a huge area. For now, though, we’re going to limit ourselves to the key concepts encapsulated in ‘VRAIP’.

What’s VRAIP?

VRAIP is an abbreviation for Validity, Reliability, Authenticity, Impact and Practicality. These are key concepts in LAL and can be used as a handy checklist for evaluating language tests. Let’s take each one briefly in turn.

Validity

Face, concurrent, construct, content, criterion, predictive… the list of types of validity goes on, but at its core, validity refers to how well a test measures what it is setting out to measure. The different types of validity can help highlight different strengths and weaknesses of language tests, inform us of what test results say about the test taker, and allow us to see if a test is being misused. Take construct validity. This refers to the appropriateness of any inferences made based upon the test scores; the test itself is neither valid nor invalid. With that in mind, would you say the test in Figure 1 is a valid classroom progress test of grammar? What about a valid proficiency speaking test?

Figure 1

Student A

Ask your partner the questions about the magazine.

 

1.       What / magazine called?

2.       What / read about?

3.       How much?

 

 

Student B

Answer your partner with this information.

Teen Now Magazine

Download the Teen Now! app on your phone or tablet for all the latest music and fashion news.

Only £30 per year!

http://www.teennow.oup

Reliability

‘Reliability’ refers to consistency in measurement, and however valid a test, without reliability its results cannot be trusted. Yet ironically, there is a general distrust of statistics itself, reflected in the joke that “a statistician’s role is to turn an unwarranted assumption into a foregone conclusion”. This distrust is often rooted in a lack of appreciation of how statistics work, but it’s well within the average teacher’s ability to understand the key statistical concepts. And once you have mastered this appreciation, you are in a much stronger position to critically evaluate language tests.

Authenticity

The advent of Communicative Language Teaching in the 1970s saw a greater desire for ‘realism’ in the context of the ELT classroom, and since then the place of ‘authenticity’ has continued to be debated. A useful distinction to make is between ‘text’ authenticity and ‘task’ authenticity, the former concerning the ‘realness’ of spoken or written texts, the latter concerning the type of activity used in the test. Intuitively, it feels right to design tests based on ‘real’ texts, using tasks which closely mirror real-world activities the test taker might do in real life. However, as we will see in the Practicality section below, the ideal is rarely realised.

Impact

An English language qualification can open doors and unlock otherwise unrealisable futures. But the flip side is that a lack of such a qualification can play a gatekeeping role, potentially limiting opportunities. As Pennycook (2001) argues, the English language

‘has become one of the most powerful means of inclusion or exclusion from further education, employment and social positions’.

As language tests are often arbiters of English language proficiency, we need to take the potential impact of language tests seriously.

Back in the ELT classroom, a more local instance of impact is ‘washback’, which can be defined as the positive and negative effects that tests have on teaching and learning. An example of negative washback that many exam preparation course teachers will recognise is the long hours spent teaching students how to answer weird, inauthentic exam questions, hours which could more profitably be spent on actually improving the students’ English.

Take the exam question in Figure 2, for instance, which a test taker has completed. To answer it, you need to make sentence B as close in meaning as possible to sentence A by using the upper-case word. But you mustn’t change the upper-case word. And you mustn’t use more than five words. And you must remember to count contracted words as their full forms. Phew! That’s a lot to teach your students. Is this really how we want to spend our precious time with our students?

By the way, the test taker’s answer in Figure 2 didn’t get full marks. Can you see why? The solution is at the end of this blog.

Figure 2

A    I haven’t received an invite from Anna yet.

STILL

B     Anna still hasn’t sent an invite.

The cause of this type of ‘negative washback’ is typically due to test design emphasising reliability at the expense of authenticity. But before we get too critical, we need to appreciate that balancing all these elements is always an exercise in compromise, which brings us nicely to the final concept in VRAIP…

Practicality

There is always a trade-off between validity, reliability, authenticity and impact. Want a really short placement test? Then you’re probably going to have to sacrifice some construct validity. Want a digitally-delivered proficiency test? Then you’re probably going to have to sacrifice some authenticity. Compromise in language testing is inevitable, so we need to be assessment literate enough to recognise when VRAIP is sufficiently balanced for a test’s purpose. If you’d like to boost your LAL, sign up for my assessment literacy session.

If you’re a little rusty, or new to key language assessment concepts such as validity, reliability, impact, and practicality, then my assessment literacy session is the session for you:

Register for the webinar

Solution: The test taker did not get full marks because their answer was not ‘as close as possible’ to sentence A. To get full marks, they needed to write “still hasn’t sent me”.

 


References

  • Malone, M. E. (2011). Assessment literacy for language educators. CAL Digest October 2011.
  • Pennycook, A. (2001). English in the World/The World in English. In A Burns and C. Coffin (Eds), Analysing English in a Global Context: A Reader. London, Routledge
  • Stiggins, R. J, & Conklin, N. F. (1992). In teachers’ hands: Investigating the practices of classroom assessment. Albany: State University of New York Press.

 

Colin Finnerty is Head of Assessment Production at Oxford University Press. He has worked in language assessment at OUP for eight years, heading a team which created the Oxford Young Learner’s Placement Test and the Oxford Test of English. His interests include learner corpora, learning analytics, and adaptive technology.


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Assessment in a Post-Pandemic World

empty classroomThere’s an elephant in the room!

At times, the whole world seems to be falling to pieces around us. Yet, the expectation is that we carry on and do our best to get through the crisis remains – and this expectation is right, as learners are looking towards educators for guidance and for a way through. I see it as our duty to ensure that the interruption to education is as minimal as possible and we’re all stepping up to try to do our bit. That’s why we’re doing the Oxford English Assessment Professional Development conference, to provide professional development to teachers who want to know more about assessment. For more information about what else Oxford University Press is doing to support students and teachers, click here.

My session is about assessing online and by providing access to this kind of professional development to teachers, I hope that our students benefit. Now the elephant called COVID-19 has been addressed, let’s move on to explore what changes it will leave in its wake and how teachers can adapt now to best serve their students.

A changed educational landscape

The current situation means that even teachers who have always avoided online are being forced to deliver lessons and/or content to their students digitally. There’s a spectrum here from the school which provides a few worksheets to parents to the schools who carry out all lessons via Zoom. Wherever you fall on that spectrum, there’s no denying that we’re all learning to do things differently and, in many ways, the digital revolution in education that has been promised for decades is now being forced upon the world. The impact of these changes is going to last far longer than the pandemic itself.

The continued importance of assessment

Assessment remains important in this new world for all the benefits that it brings, and I’ll discuss these more in my talk. In the absence of face-face contact, good assessment is more important than ever in providing feedback to students on their learning journey and keeping students engaged and motivated. Delivering this type of assessment online might be a challenge for some teachers and in this session, I’ll talk about some different scenarios where good assessment can be implemented, and I’ll provide you with a toolkit for carrying out assessment online.

Tell me what you want, what you really, really want!

The scenarios I’m going to address are based on what I know about learning, teaching and assessment but I’m not the expert in what’s happening for you right now. It would be awesome if you could leave comments and let me know about any scenarios you would like me to explore or any questions you have about online assessment. I’ll try to include as many as possible in the talk and I’ll make sure there’s a lot of time for questions and discussion. Join me and a community of educators to explore the topic of online assessment in a changed world.

 

In the absence of face-face contact, good assessment is more important than ever in providing feedback to students on their learning journey and keeping students engaged and motivated. In my session, I’ll talk about some different scenarios where good assessment can be implemented, and I’ll provide you with a toolkit for carrying out assessment online.

Register for the webinar

 


Sarah Rogerson is Director of Assessment at Oxford University Press. She has worked in English language teaching and assessment for 20 years and is passionate about education for all and digital innovation in ELT. As a relative newcomer to OUP, Sarah is really excited about the Oxford Test of English and how well it caters to the 21st-century student.


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Assessment activities that help students show what they know | ELTOC 2020

Assessment Activities Most teachers include informal, ongoing assessment as an integral part of their lessons. Noticing what students know and don’t yet know helps us adapt our lessons and teaching strategies. Sometimes teachers hesitate to tell students when they are being assessed because they don’t want students to become anxious. However, if we present these assessment activities as a chance for students to see (and show us) how much they can do in English, they can be something that students look forward to.

Colin Finnerty writes about the importance of providing students with the ‘right level of challenge’ in formal assessment. This is equally important in informal assessment activities, especially in young learner classrooms where teachers are juggling students’ cognitive and physical development, language levels and global skills objectives. Matching assessment activities to student levels can make the difference between a student feeling like a success (and working enthusiastically toward even more success) and feeling like a failure (and giving up on English in frustration).

The simplest way to make sure that your assessments are at an appropriate challenge level is to repurpose activities students are already familiar with. Students can focus on the language or skill you are assessing rather than figuring out what it is that they are supposed to do.

In my ELTOC webinar, we’ll look at different types of activities to assess both language and global skills, but in this blog post, let’s look at how these activities might work for assessing writing. First language writing development commonly categorizes children as emergent, transitional, or fluent writers (Culham, 2005). In foreign language writing development, these levels are determined more by literacy level than by age, because children begin studying English at different ages, some are already literate in their first language, and some are coming from a first language that has a writing system very different English. While writing skills may develop a bit differently in a second or foreign language, the categories are still useful for describing stages of growth.

Assessment activities for pre-literate learners

At this stage, students don’t really write. They are typically developing phonemic awareness of English sounds, and perhaps developing awareness of how the English writing system differs from their own. While you can’t assess a skill they haven’t yet developed, you can give them a picture or photograph and ask them to tell you what they would write if they could. If you want something to add to a portfolio to document growth, you can also record them talking about their pictures.

My name is Max English Assessment

Watch the video on YouTube. Created using Chatterpix.

What is Ririko showing us that she can do? She uses the English she knows in a creative way to talk about the dog, including using a relatively low-frequency word from a phonics lesson (bone). It’s easy to identify areas I might want to focus on in class, I also want Ririko to see what she is able to do so that she can learn to notice her own growth.

Assessment activities for emergent writers

Emergent writers can write with a model that provides a lot of structure, for example personalizing sentences from lessons, like I can _____ in the following example. In writing, they still convey most of their meaning through drawings. To assess their progress, you can ask them to draw a picture and then write using the model to bring the writing challenge to an appropriate level.

Emergent Writers Assessment

Kanna clearly understands that I can ___ is prompting her to talk about abilities. She was able to correctly spell two relatively challenging words (swim and jump) because those were important to her. They helped her communicate something meaningful about her own abilities.

Assessment activities for transitional writers

Students at this level can write somewhat independently when using familiar patterns and words, but often use invented spelling. They may still need illustrations to support what they’re trying to communicate in writing. An appropriate assessment activity is to ask them to draw a simple picture and write what they can about it.

Transitional Writers Assessment

Interestingly, Natsuru can spell ‘like’ correctly on a spelling test and uses plurals with the verb in practice activities but loses that accuracy when she’s writing to communicate. But I am impressed that she created a conversation for her drawing, especially since she hasn’t been explicitly taught any of the conventions that go with writing dialogue.

Assessment activities for fluent writers

Fluent writers can do a lot. They can organize their thoughts in a logical order and their writing usually has a beginning, middle, and end. They are willing to take risks with structures and words they aren’t confident with. Give them a specific topic, and a time limit, and ask them to write as much as they can during that time. Satoshi’s class was asked to write about something that happened during their summer vacation.

Fluent Writers Assessment

Errors like Satoshi’s with prepositions and verbs show his developing understanding of the English language system. These types of errors are sometimes called ‘developmental’ errors “because they are similar to those made by children acquiring English as their first language” (Lightbown and Spada, 2013). I can also see that Satoshi is ready to learn how to use transitions like on the fifth day in his writing. He hasn’t explicitly learned how to use ordinals for telling a story in chronological order so I’m happy to see him include them. I’m thrilled that he was willing to write about something that was meaningful to him, even though he knew he wouldn’t be able to do it perfectly.

If we create a learning environment where assessment activities are opportunities for students to see their own growth, we can also help them learn how to become reflective learners.


Barbara spoke further on this topic at ELTOC 2020. Stay tuned to our Facebook and Twitter pages for more information about upcoming professional development events from Oxford University Press.

You can catch-up on past Professional Development events using our webinar library.

These resources are available via the Oxford Teacher’s Club.

Not a member? Registering is quick and easy to do, and it gives you access to a wealth of teaching resources.


Barbara Hoskins Sakamoto is co-author of the bestselling Let’s Go series, and director of the International Teacher Development Institute (iTDi.pro). She is an English Language Specialist with the U.S. State Department and has conducted teacher training workshops in Asia, Europe, the Americas, and online.


References

Culham, R. (2005). The 6+1 Traits of Writing: The Complete Guide for the Primary Grades. New York: Scholastic.

Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. (2013). How Languages are Learned. Fourth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.