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Task-Based Instruction: The marriage of College and Career Readiness and English Language Proficiency

OPD3e_Image (1)Step Forward Series Director, Jayme Adelson-Goldstein, identifies several task types that incorporate the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education (CCRS) and the English Language Proficiency Standards for Adult Education(ELPS) as a preview of her CCR presentation at TESOL 2017 this month.

Taking Our Instruction to Task

The focus on 21st century college and career readiness (CCR) for adult English language learners has sent adult ESOL instructors scrambling to create (or locate) rigorous lessons that

  • include practice with complex text and its academic language (at the appropriate level),
  • require critical thinking and problem solving, and
  • provide direct instruction in language strategies.

Many of us need look no further than our texts to find the basis for meaningful tasks that help learners accomplish all the above. Task-based instruction (TBI), as discussed by N.S. Prahbu, David and Jane Willis, David Nunan, Rod Ellis and others, creates opportunities for learners to use authentic language and processes that result in a product or tangible outcome that learners first share and discuss, and then analyze in order to improve their accurate use of the language.

In the world outside our classroom, we do not use language skills in isolation. Both the College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education (2013) and the English Language Proficiency Standards (2016) show the intersections between skills. A well-designed task embodies this connection, creating a more robust use of language and greater relevance for the learner. In this blog, we will look at basic task design and provide three task types that integrate CCR skills.

A Basic Task Framework

Your preparation for the task includes gathering any essential task materials (e.g. links or tags for research, poster board and markers, sentence or paragraph frames for report backs, etc.) and determining what instructions are needed in addition to those in your textbook.

1) Present the task objective to the class and any essential information learners will need, (e.g. instruction vocabulary and/or background knowledge)

2) Next, show learners a model for–or example of–what they will produce (a list, a chart, a poster, a written report, a photo, etc.) including examples of the type of written work they will generate for their report on their task outcome(s). Note that the outcome of the task is not a right or wrong answer. A successful task will have divergent outcomes that take full advantage of each team’s prior knowledge, problem solving, critical thinking, creativity and language skills.

3) Learners form pairs or teams and select (or are assigned) team roles. Task instructions are distributed to each pair or team or posted/projected for all learners to see. General comprehension is checked and time limits are set.

4) While learners work on the task, you are an observer and monitor. Once they complete it, they plan and rehearse a short report back on the work they did and their outcome(s), (e.g., the list, poster, conversation, advice letter, etc.). At this point in the process, you engage with the teams, supporting learners’ language needs as questions arise.

5) When it’s time for teams to report out, they can take turns presenting to the whole class or make simultaneous reports, with one or two members of each team traveling to other teams to make their presentation.

6) Briefly highlight each team’s success following their presentation or once all presentations are complete. Ask the class to provide feedback as well.

7) Once all presentations are complete, it’s time to help learners notice global and/or egregious errors that interfered with their collaboration or their report out. Provide practice or take home activities that correlate to the language challenges learners had during the task.

Developing a Task Repertoire

A task repertoire can make instructional planning much easier, but there are some important considerations. First, there is the issue of teacher intention versus learner interpretation (B. Kumaravadivelu, 1991) We can address this issue with

1) a learning objective or outcome that is written at the learners’ level and is accompanied by an example of the outcome;

2) clear instructions; and

3) a tracking tool to help learners monitor their progress towards the task objective, for example a checklist or rubric.

It’s also important to consider differentiation. Even in classes identified as “single level”, there can be distinct variations in language proficiency. Support learners’ varied needs by having them work in like-ability (same-ability) teams on the same basic task but with adaptations that make the task level-appropriate, e.g. scaffolding for lower-level learners and increasing the challenge for higher-level learners. Another option is to place learners in cross-ability (different-ability) teams, working on the same task but providing task roles that allow each team member to participate fully.

Authentic Team Chart (2) (1).png

The three task examples included with this blog are categorizing, dictocomp and problem solving. Most textbooks have the raw materials you can use to employ one or more of these task types in your lesson. (E.g. a set of vocabulary from a unit, a listening passage, a conversation, photo or text that poses a problem.) These tasks can be differentiated for the proficiency level of your learners and can help learners develop the skills they need to transition into college, career and community settings. For example, learners in each of these tasks “prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners” (CCR Speaking/Listening Standard 1) and “present information and supporting evidence such that a listener can follow the line of reasoning and organization.” (CCR Speaking/Listening Anchor Standard 4).  There are also opportunities for teams to “develop and strengthen their writing by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach” (CCR Writing Anchor Standard 5).

Download the three task examples here.

Developing a task repertoire that includes college and career readiness skill development is relatively painless when you can base your tasks on the practice activities in your textbook.

Are you attending TESOL 2017 this year? Join me on Wednesday 22 March at 10.30am to further explore how we can help our adult learners achieve their personal and profession goals using tasks to integrate the College and Career Readiness Standards in to our lessons. Find out more here.

For more educational resources to use in class visit the Oxford Picture Dictionary Third Edition Teacher’s Club website.

References

American Institutes for Research. (2016) English Language Proficiency Standards for Adult Education. Washington, D.C: AIR

Ellis, R. (2006)” The Methodology of Task-based Learning.” Asian EFL Journal, Volume 8, Number 3. Retrieved on February 1

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1991). “Language learning tasks: Teacher intention and learner interpretation.” ELT Journal, 45, 98-107

Nunan, D. (1987) Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pimentel, S. (2013) College and Career Standards for Adult Education. Washington, D.C.: Office of Career, Technical and Adult Education.

Prabhu, N.S. (1987) Second Language Pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Willis, D. and Willis, J. (2007) Doing Task Based Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press


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How to give an effective presentation: Part 3 – Deliver

This is the third and final video tip from Ben Shearon, the Stretch Presenting Skills Consultant, as he shares his advice to help students enter The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15 and become more comfortable and confident public speakers.

With less than one month to go until the competition closes, Ben demonstrates how to deliver a presentation with confidence:

 

It’s the last chance for you and your young adult/adult students to take part in The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15!

One of your students could win a two week all-expenses paid scholarship to Regent Oxford, a renowned English school in Oxford, as well as a class set of Stretch for you. Expand students’ public speaking skills, improve their English, and get them presenting in class!

Closing date: January 2, 2015. Enter today!

Related articles:

 


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How to give an effective presentation: Part 2 – Practice

In this series of video tips Ben Shearon, the Stretch Presenting Skills Consultant, shares his advice to help students enter The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15 and become more comfortable and confident public speakers.

The more you practice, the easier your presentation will be. But how can you make sure that your practice makes a difference? Ben shares his ideas:

Have your young adult/adult class entered The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15 yet?

One of your students could win a two-week all-expenses paid scholarship to Regent Oxford, a renowned English school in Oxford, as well as a class set of Stretch for you. Expand students’ public speaking skills, improve their English, and get them presenting in class!

Closing date: January 2, 2015. Enter today!

Related articles:

  • Part 1 – Plan
  • Check back in December, when we will post Ben’s third and final video tip. Or visit the competition webpage to see it today.


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How to give an effective presentation: Part 1 – Plan

In this series of video tips Ben Shearon, the Stretch Presenting Skills Consultant, shares his advice to help students enter The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15 and become more comfortable and confident public speakers.

Here, he reveals how to plan and prepare a presentation effectively:

 

Get your young adult/adult students presenting in class by entering The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15.

One of your students could win a two week all-expenses paid scholarship to Regent Oxford, a renowned English school in Oxford, as well as a class set of Stretch for you. Expand students’ public speaking skills, improve their English, and get them presenting in class!

Closing date: January 2, 2015. Enter today!

Related articles:

  • Check back in November, when we will post Ben Shearon’s second video tip. Or visit the competition webpage to see it today.


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Why Teachers Should Introduce Presentation Practice into English Language Classes

Why Teachers Should Introduce Presentation Practice into Language ClassesBen Shearon, the Presenting Skills consultant for our brand new course Stretch, shares his thoughts on the benefits of integrating presenting skills into EFL and ESL classes.

Many people are terrified of speaking in public, even though it probably isn’t true that it edges out death at the top of the list of most common fears.  My first presentation was over ten years ago at a local conference for English teachers. I was very nervous and not at all confident speaking in front of my peers. I don’t really remember much about the presentation, but since then I’ve gone on to give more than 100 talks at conferences, events, and seminars. I’m now pretty happy in front of a room full of strangers, and presenting has become one of the most enjoyable parts of my job.

There are several good reasons to introduce presentation and public speaking practice into our EFL and ESL classes. The first and most important is that effective presentation and public speaking skills are a valuable life skill. Many of our learners will need them in the future, and appreciate the chance to practice them now. Presentation practice also allows teachers to introduce personalisation and different topics into classes. Learners can choose the content they present, and this brings a variety of information and ideas into the classroom. Learners can learn more about each other, and presentations can also be an easy way to break up a course and provide a change of pace.

Before giving a presentation, learners will have to spend time drafting, editing, memorizing, and practicing their content. This allows them to really internalize the language without the tedium or staleness sometimes associated with drilling and memorization. In addition, learners are able to listen to their classmates talking about variations on a topic, giving them useful extensive listening practice. Becoming an effective presenter requires awareness of effective presenting techniques, having meaningful content to deliver, and most of all, lots of practice. We can provide our learners with the first and third of these, and guide them as they attempt to provide the second.

Developing presentation skills

One of the most practical ways to teach presenting skills is to break the complex and sometimes overwhelming experience down into discrete skills. This makes it easy to introduce and practice them gradually.

Some examples of these skills would be posture (standing in a confident and open manner), making eye contact, using appropriate volume and speed when speaking, choosing content, use of rhetorical techniques, planning and structuring the talk, and use of visual aids.

The presenting sub-skills can be introduced one at a time and students can focus on certain skills as they gain more experience presenting.

In general, the physical skills are easier to explain and harder to get right, so I usually recommend students start there in order to get the most practice with them. After that they can go on to content selection and organization, visual aids, and rhetorical techniques. Some teachers might hesitate to introduce presentation skills into language classes, especially if they don’t have experience teaching them, but in my experience it is well worth attempting and your students will probably thank you for it!

For more ideas on how to integrate presentation into your classes, take a look at Stretch, the new course that features a dedicated presenting skills strand.

To celebrate the launch of Stretch I’m asking students all over the world to enter The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition by submitting a two-minute presentation – and I’d love to see your students taking part! Get your students presenting in class and one of them could win a two-week scholarship to Regent Oxford, a renowned English school in Oxford, as well as a classroom set of Stretch for you.

Watch my video below to find out more:


Why not get your students presenting in class by entering The Stretch Presenting Skills Competition 2014-15? One of your students could win a two-week all-expenses paid scholarship to Regent Oxford, a renowned English school in Oxford, as well as a class set of Stretch for you. Closing date: January 2, 2015. Enter today!