Marie Delaney is a teacher, trainer, educational psychotherapist, and author of ‘Teaching the Unteachable’ (Worth). Following her first article on dyslexia, where she looked at what dyslexia really is, she now returns with strategies for teaching dyslexic learners.
In my previous article I looked at the problems learners with dyslexia might face in the English classroom. In this blog, I will share some teaching strategies which can help these learners in the key areas of sound/letter recognition, working memory and confidence.
Problems with recognition of sounds and letters
1. Think in colour
Learners with dyslexia have problems matching the sounds of English to the written word. Use different colours to show the patterns of words, to break down the sounds into manageable chunks. For example, boat, coat, moat.
Some learners will benefit from writing or reading in certain colours, or using certain colours of paper, or certain types of colour transparent overlays which can be put over the reading page. Encourage the learner to experiment to find a colour that works for them.
2. Hear it, see it, feel it
Multi-sensory teaching helps learners to consolidate sound and letter recognition. For example: 3D letter shapes can be used to practise keywords; letters can be traced in sand or clay; words can be made physical by making letters from the body.
Understanding time is a problem. It can help to get learners to stand in different places on a timeline to illustrate tenses and aspect.
Teach learners how to visualise words. Learners with dyslexia need to develop their own internal visual dictionary. Encourage the learner to imagine the word up high, visualising it rather than sounding it out. They hold the word as a photo in their mind. Write new words on the learner’s right of your board, up high. This encourages learners to access their visual memory.
Problems with working memory
Working memory is the part of the brain which allows us to hold information recently given to us and to act upon it. Learners with dyslexia have problems with their working memory, they often say that words quite literally fall out of their heads.
1. Instructions, instructions, instructions
Remembering instructions is very difficult for some learners. We need to work on giving instructions in all senses, using visual cues and gestures. Check understanding of instructions by giving an example and getting an example back from learners.
2. Teach reading strategies
Learners with dyslexia find reading comprehension difficult because they quickly forget the paragraph they just read. Show them how to recognise topic sentences, how to use colour to highlight keywords, encourage them to stop regularly and ask themselves “What have I just read?”.
3. It can be fun
Use memory games to develop working memory. For example, put words on the board, rub one word out, ask learners what word has been rubbed out.
4. Draw it
Use mind maps – they give learners with dyslexia the big picture and help them to condense information in a meaningful way.
Problems with confidence and self-esteem
Despite our best teaching efforts, learners with dyslexia often lose confidence about learning. They can feel stupid and frustrated when their progress is slow.
We can work on this in class in different ways:
- Teach learners how to access positive states for learning, e.g. remembering a time when they felt confident, keeping the confident feeling as they try their reading
- Let the learners explain to the rest of the class what it is like to have dyslexia
- Work with their strengths, for example, use activities where learners have to create new solutions to problems
- Use audio recordings, encourage learners to record their answers
- Mark work for content, not always for spelling
- Don’t label their slow progress as being lazy
- Praise skills other than literacy, for example, give a reward for the most creative learner
- Use drama activities to help learners express their thoughts and show their creative ability
Above all, encourage your learners to view their dyslexia as a learning style rather than a learning handicap. Celebrate difference!
- Dyslexia – A Problem or a Gift? (oupeltglobalblog.com)